The ubiquitous forms of address for women ‘Mrs’ and ‘Miss’ are both abbreviations of ‘mistress’. Although mistress is a term with a multiplicity of meanings, in early modern England the mistress most commonly designated the female equivalent of master–that is, a person with capital who directed servants or apprentices.
Prior to the mid eighteenth century, there was only Mrs (or Mris, Ms, or other forms of abbreviation). Mrs was applied to any adult woman who merited the social distinction, without any marital connotation. Miss was reserved for young girls until the mid eighteenth century. Even when adult single women started to use Miss, Mrs still designated a social or business standing, and not the status of being married, until at least the mid nineteenth century.
This article demonstrates the changes in nomenclature over time, explains why Mrs was never used to accord older single women the same status as a married woman, and argues that the distinctions are important to economic and social historians.
Abstract from Mistresses and Marriage: or, a Short History of the Mrs, also known as the most interesting article I’ve read all day.
Full text is available here, but if you remember one thing, how about that Jane Austen in 1811 is the earliest citation that the author can find for the “Mrs Man” form, e.g. “Mrs John Dashwood”?(via allthingslinguistic)
Gomenasai, my name is Ken-Sama.
I’m a 27 year old American Otaku (Anime fan for you gaijins). I draw Anime and Manga on my tablet, and spend my days perfecting my art and playing superior Japanese games. (Disgaea, Final Fantasy, Persona series)
I train with my Katana every day, this superior weapon can cut clean through steel because it is folded over a thousand times, and is vastly superior to any other weapon on earth. I earned my sword license two years ago, and I have been getting better every day.
I speak Japanese fluently, both Kanji and the Osaka dialect, and I write fluently as well. I know everything about Japanese history and their bushido code, which I follow 100%
When I get my Japanese visa, I am moving to Tokyo to attend a prestigious High School to learn more about their magnificent culture. I hope I can become an animator for Studio Ghibli or a game designer!
I own several kimonos, which I wear around town. I want to get used to wearing them before I move to Japan, so I can fit in easier. I bow to my elders and seniors and speak Japanese as often as I can, but rarely does anyone manage to respond.
Wish me luck in Japan!
Howdy, my name is Kenichi Smith.
I’m a 27 year old Japanese Toonaholic (Cartoon fan for you foreigners). I draw cartoons and comics on my tablet, and spend my days perfecting my art and playing superior American games. (Halo, Gears of War, Call of Duty)
I train with my 1911 every day, this superior weapon can shoot straight through steel because it kicks ass , and is vastly superior to any other weapon on earth. I earned my gun license two years ago, and I have been getting better every day.
I speak English fluently, both the Midwestern and the East Coast accents, and I write fluently as well. I know everything about American history and their Constitution, which I follow 100%
When I get my American visa, I am moving to New York to attend a prestigious High School to learn more about their magnificent culture. I hope I can become an animator for Nickelodeon or a game designer!
I own several cowboy outfits, which I wear around town. I want to get used to wearing them before I move to America, so I can fit in easier. I keep cool to my elders and seniors and speak English as often as I can, but rarely does anyone manage to respond.
Wish me luck in America!
Chinese artist Yang Yongliang is known for his sprawling photographic collages that depict the devastating effects of uncontrolled urbanisation and industrialisation. At a distance the works look like traditional Chinese painting and calligraphy but when viewed up close, the peaceful mountains and seascapes are found to be choked with buildings, factories, and machinery.
DO YOU SEE THIS? DO YOU? ALL OF YOU WHO HAD WRITTEN OFF PLUTO, WHO HAD CROSSED IT OFF YOUR PLANET LIST? REMEMBER HOW IT WAS ‘TOO SMALL” TO BE A PLANET? HOW NASA, IN COLLABORATION WITH THE INTERNATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL UNION REMOVED ITS PLANETARY STATUS AND CHANGED ITS NAME TO 134340? HOW EVERYONE THEN CONSIDERED THERE TO BE EIGHT PLANETS, NOT NINE?
BUT SOME OF US REMAINED LOYAL TO PLUTO. IT WAS NEVER FORGOTTEN. AND NOW HERE WE ARE, AND JUSTICE IS UPON US AFTER 8 YEARS.
BECAUSE GUESS WHAT? PLUTO HAS AT LEAST FIVE MOONS, A PRETTY BIG NUMBER FOR A ”DWARF-PLANET”, HUH? ESPECIALLY WHEN EARTH, QUITE BIGGER THAN PLUTO AND AN OFFICIAL PLANET ONLY HAS ONE. AND GUESS WHAT ELSE? ERIS, THE PLANET WHICH EVERYONE THOUGHT TO BE BIGGER THAN PLUTO, MAY NOT BE BIGGER AFTER ALL. AND THE BEST PART IS THAT PLUTO HAS AN ATMOSHPERE. THAT’S RIGHT, LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, A SUPPOSEDLY NON-PLANET HAS AN ATMOSPHERE. AGAIN, ISN’T THAT IMPRESSIVE?
SO LOOK AT THIS. NEW FINDINGS, AND A NEW AGE FOR PLUTO. AN AGE OF RECOGNITION AND APPRECIATION. AND ALLOW ME TO CLOSE THIS -somewhat aggressive-PRESENTATION OF OPINION WITH THE MOTTO OF THE PLUTO APOLOGISTS: VIVA LA PLUTO!
Get “Viva la Pluto” to be a trending tag
The Pluto fandom doesn’t fuck around
A new CCTV report catchily titled ‘Expats unqualified for language teaching in China?’ appeared on August 30, and is already bringing controversy to China’s expat bubble. As more foreigners seek jobs in China as English language teachers, there is a growing need for supervision in China’s language teaching market. Currently, many foreign teachers in China are not as qualified as they claim.
The report explains the legal regulation that any potential English teacher should go through; to teach legally a foreigner must apply for foreign expert certificate, go to the local public security bureau for a work permit, and should not be teaching part-time elsewhere. Though these regulations are far from new, they are often not adhered to. Many teachers do not have an actual teaching certificate, with many not even being English native speakers.
One of my precious professors told me he showed my podcast to ppl in China and they LOVED it.
Meaning, if I actually make these podcasts for ESL/EFL, people will use them.
More importantly, my professor must have been impressed enough to BRING MY STUFF TO ANOTHER COUNTRY bc he was training another university’s TEFL instructors. Like, you don’t understand. This dude does Corpus Linguistics for fun and is my hero.
Like, oh my gosh, he made my day today.
FREE! / Pokemon crossover!!!
haru: dolphin + vaporeon
makoto: orca + lanturn
kiss me: betta fish + dewgong
gou: shark + corsola
rei: flying fish + finneon
nagisa: sunset anthias + piplup
sousuke: whale shark + seadra
rin: shark + sharpedo
ai: pilot fish + ducklett
momotaro: clown fish + buizel
first time making a gif ((((((;v;))))))
I left you in the spring, just as the cherry blossoms (桜 - sakura) started to bloom. It was then I started to enjoy and appreciate Japan even more. As the weather got warmer I started to venture both outside of my tiny apartment and Osaka, the city that I call home, more often. I made more friends, traveled tremendously, and started a second job. By the time the petals started to fall only a short week after fully blooming - both a beautiful and heartbreaking sight - I was a busy bee. These past few months have been hectic, but they’ve been good.
During cherry blossom season it’s common for the people of this country to pack a lunch, head to the nearest viewing spot (there are so many, yet every one still manages to be horrendously crowded), lay out a blue tarp (the kind we New Orleanians put on our shredded roofs after a hurricane), crack open a beer, and enjoy the view. It’s called 花見 (hanami - flower viewing). The Japanese will find any excuse to drink, but you’ve really got to hand it to a culture that takes the time to just sit down and appreciate nature.